Types of surveying in civil engineering ppt

Types of surveying in civil engineering ppt

Lets go on with the discussion of types of scales briefly for our better understanding…. Plain Scale is one on which it is possible to measure two dimensions only. For example, measurements such as units and lengths, metres and decimetres etc.

On diagonal scale, it is possible to measure three dimensions such as metres, decimetres and centimetres, unitstens and hundreds; yards, feet and inches etc. A short length is divided into number of parts using the principle of similar triangle in which sides are proportional.

A device used for measuring the fractional part of one of the smallest divisions of a graduated scale. Scale of chords is used to measure an angle and is marked on either on rectangular protractor or an ordinary box wood scale. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed. Leave a Reply Cancel reply. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email.

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Ok Privacy policy.Curves are provided whenever a road changes its direction from right to S vice versa or changes its alignment from up to down vice versa.

Curves are a critical element in the pavement design. They are provided with a maximum speed limit that should lie followed very strictly. Following the speed limit becomes essential as the exceed in speed may lead to the chances of the vehicle becoming out of control while negotiating a turn and thus increase the odds of fatal accidents.

Also, it is very necessary that appropriate safety measures be adopted at all horizontal and vertical curves to make the infrastructure road user friendly and decrease the risks of hazardous circumstances. The low cost safety measures that can be adopted at curves included chevron signs, delineators, pavement markingsflexible posts, fluorescent strips, road safety barriers, rumble strips etc.

There are two types of curves provided primarily for the comfort and ease of the motorists in the road namely:. Horizontal curves are provided to change the direction or alignment of a road. Horizontal Curve are circular curves or circular arcs. The sharpness of a curve increases as the radius is decrease which makes it risky and dangerous. The main design criterion of a horizontal curve is the provision of an adequate safe stopping sight distance.

A simple arc provided in the road to impose a curve between the two straight lines. Combination of two simple curves combined together to curve in the same direction. A curve that has a varying radius. Its provided with a simple curve and between the simple curves in a compound curve. While turning a vehicle is exposed to two forces. The first force which attracts the vehicle towards the ground is gravity.

The second is centripetal force, which is an external force required to keep the vehicle on a curved path. At any velocity, the centripetal force would be greater for a tighter turn smaller radius than a broader one larger radius.

Thus, the vehicle would have to make a very wide circle in order to negotiate a turn. This issue is encountered when providing horizontal curves by designing roads that are tilted at a slight angle thus providing ease and comfort to the driver while turning.

types of surveying in civil engineering ppt

This phenomenon is defined as super elevation, which is the amount of rise seen on a given cross-section of a turning road, it is otherwise known as slope. Vertical curves are provided to change the slope in the road and may or may not be symmetrical.After you enable Flash, refresh this page and the presentation should play. Get the plugin now. Toggle navigation.

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Types of Scales in Surveying

View by Category Toggle navigation. Products Sold on our sister site CrystalGraphics. Title: Civil Engineering Surveying. Description: Civil Engineering. Roy Frank. Planning A Survey Design Maps Tags: civil engineering surveying. Latest Highest Rated. And Long Probe, detectors often problems - brass 4 Planning A Survey Choice of Instruments and Methods Depends on availability, location, existing features, and accuracy Computation and Drafting 5 Accuracy and Errors Accuracy depends on Precise instruments Precise Methods Good Planning Example Angle turned with theodolite, pointed with care readings checked thus good precision.

Angles of expected, real results angles 15 accuracy 6 Errors 3 Types Blunders Systematic Error Accidental Error Blunder is a mistake, to help eliminate Every value to be recorded must be checked by some independent field observation 7 Errors Once check indicates that there is no blunder, field record must never be changed or destroyed An overall check must be applied to every control survey.

Make as many overall checks as possible. Basic Rules to Eliminate All surveying equipment must be designed and used so that whenever possible systematic errors will be eliminated automatically Systematic error which can not be eliminated must be evaluated and their relationship to conditions that cause them must be determined.

It must contain in addition to the above Length of each line Direction of each line bearing or angles Subdivision numbering system lot and block Location and Kind of monuments Names of property owners on site and adjacent Full description of Boundary Certificate of Surveyor that map is correct 27 Planning and Estimating from Topo Maps Purpose of Topo maps Profiles Grade contour Drainage Area Limits determined by following characteristics Begins and ends at the point in the stream to which it applies Passes through every saddle that divides drainage area Often follows ridges Reservoir Capacity 28 Earthwork Computations by Average End Area Prepare Cross Sections Differentiate between existing proposed Planimeter Cross Sections Amount of cut fill for each cross section Beginning and end stations have 0 value Compute Volume Conversion Constant 1.

Run traverse connecting major control points Run levels and establish BMs along traverse network 53 Order for project Monuments Iron pin with bronze cap in 12 dia PCC and extending min 18 below frost line min 48 Traverse 1st order, Stations generally apart Leveling base on NGS datum 3-wire differential most often used Avoid objects that are not permanent fire hydrants, power poles, etc.

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All triangles formed by survey lines are considered plane triangles. The level line is considered straight and all plumb lines are considered parallel. All lines lying in the surface are curved lines and the triangles are spherical triangles. It therefore, involves spherical trigonometry. All Geodetic surveys include work of larger magnitude and high degree of precision. The object of geodetic survey is to determine the precise position on the surface of the earth, of a system of widely distant points which form control stations to which surveys of less precision may be referred.

Surveys may be secondarily classified under no. There are three types of surveying based upon the nature of field which are as follows:. Based on object, there are four types of surveying which are as follows:. Based on various types of instruments used, surveying can be classified into six types. Based on methods adopted, surveying can be categorized into:.

Like Liked by 1 person. Like Like. You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Google account. You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account. Notify me of new comments via email. Notify me of new posts via email. Classification of surveying Surveys may be secondarily classified under no.

The work consists in measurement of discharge of streams, making topographic survey of shores and banks, taking and locating soundings to determine the depth of water and observing the fluctutations of the ocean tide. This consists in observations to the heavenly bodies such as the sun or any fixed star.

types of surveying in civil engineering ppt

Classification based on object: Based on object, there are four types of surveying which are as follows: Geological Surveying Mine Surveying Archaeological surveying Military surveying Classification based on instruments used: Based on various types of instruments used, surveying can be classified into six types.

Chain surveying Compass surveying Plane table surveying Theodolite surveying Tacheometric surveying Photographic surveying Classification based on methods used: Based on methods adopted, surveying can be categorized into: Triangulation surveying Traverse surveying.

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Email required Address never made public.Plane Surveying is that type of surveying in which the mean surface of the earth is considered as a plane and the spheroidal shape is neglected. All triangles formed by survey lines are considered plane triangles. The level line is considered straight and all plumb lines are considered parallel.

types of surveying in civil engineering ppt

Geodetic Surveying is that type of surveying in which the shape of the earth is taken into account. All lines lying in the surface are curved lines and the triangles are spherical triangles.

It therefore, involves spherical trigonometry. All Geodetic surveys include work of larger magnitude and high degree of precision.

types of surveying in civil engineering ppt

The object of geodetic survey is to determine the precise position on the surface of the earth, of a system of widely distant points which form control stations to which surveys of less precision may be referred. Surveys may be secondarily classified under no. There are three types of surveying based upon the nature of field which are as follows:. Based on object, there are four types of surveying which are as follows:.

Based on various types of instruments used, surveying can be classified into six types. Surveying is primarily classified as under: Plane surveying Geodetic Surveying Plane Surveying is that type of surveying in which the mean surface of the earth is considered as a plane and the spheroidal shape is neglected.

Classification of surveying Surveys may be secondarily classified under no.

Basic knowladge about Surveying - Type of Surveying - Classification of Surveying

Classification based upon nature of field: There are three types of surveying based upon the nature of field which are as follows: Land Surveying: It can be further classified as i Topographical survey ii Cadastrial Survey and iii City Survey. Marine Surveying: Marine or hydrographic survey deals with bodies of water for purpose of navigation, water supply, harbour works or for determination of mean sea level.

The work consists in measurement of discharge of streams, making topographic survey of shores and banks, taking and locating soundings to determine the depth of water and observing the fluctutations of the ocean tide. Astronomical Surveying: The astronomical survey offers the surveyor means of determining the absolute location of any point or the absolute location of and direction of any line on the surface of the earth.

This consists in observations to the heavenly bodies such as the sun or any fixed star. Classification based on object: Based on object, there are four types of surveying which are as follows: Geological Surveying Mine Surveying Archaeological surveying Military surveying Classification based on instruments used: Based on various types of instruments used, surveying can be classified into six types.

Chain surveying Compass surveying Plane table surveying Theodolite surveying Tacheometric surveying Photographic surveying Classification based on methods used: Based on methods adopted, surveying can be categorized into: Triangulation surveying Traverse surveying Please follow and like us:.

ENGINEERING SURVEYING - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Related Post. Previous article. Next article.Surveys can be classified into two classes depending upon whether the spherical shape of the earth is taken into account or not.

It is then known as geodetic surveying.

Types Of Surveying (Classification Of Surveying)

When three points lying on the surface of the earth are joined, they form a plane triangle. Consequently, all plumb lines are assumed to be parallel. The methods of plane surveying are used when the extent of the survey is small and high precision is not required. This assumption is justified in the case of surveys of small areas.

TYPES OF SURVEYING

This is so because the difference between an arc of length 25 km and the corresponding chord is only 10mm. Surveys conducted for engineering projects fall under this category. Geodetic survey is survey done for works requiring high precision, as in triangulation surveys to establish control points and in surveys of large areas. The equipment used for geodetic surveying are of very high precision and the methods used also ensure a high degree of accuracy in the measurements.

The curvature of the earth is accounted for in the measurements taken during such surveys. Surveys can be further classified into categories depending on the purpose, instruments, techniques used, etc. Many more instruments are available now. Chain survey is done using a chain or tape only. A chain or tape measures linear distances.

The chain triangulation of a small area is done by leIdlltg the area to be surveyed into a number of triangles. Using the sides of the triangles. Chains and tapes meant for survey work are available in lengths of 20 or 30 m.

If the length of the line to be measured is more than that of the chain length, then intemediate points have to be set up by ranging. For locating details, perpendiculars to a chain line can be set by many methods. A magnetic compass works on the principle that a freely suspended magnetic needle points in the magnetic north-south direction.Surveying is a very crucial branch of civil engineering. Depending on the requirement, various types of surveying has been evolved.

To understand surveying fully one must know details of these surveying types. Surveying is the technique of determining the relative position of different features on, above or beneath the surface of the earth by means of direct or indirect measurements and finally representing them on a sheet of paper known as plan or map.

Surveying is the science and art of making all essential measurements to determine the relative position of points or physical and cultural details above, on, or beneath the surface of the Earth, and to depict them in a usable form, or to establish the position of points or details. Plane surveying deals with small areas on the surface of the earth assuming the surface of the land to be plane.

So curvature of the earth is neglected. Plane surveying can further be subdivided in the following ways:. Geodetic surveying deals with vast areas, so curvature has to be considered. Geodetic surveying can be subdivided in the following ways:. Please note that the information in Civiltoday. The information provided should not be used as a substitute for professional services.

Cement Hydraulic Cement. Bridge Building Equipment Wall. Civil Engineering In a closed traverse of n sides the sum of deflection angle is. Surveying What is Surveying? Civil Engineering What is Civil Engineering? Disclaimer Please note that the information in Civiltoday. Subscribe Us To get regular update and new article notification please subscribe us.


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